Manley's Technology Of Biscuits, Crackers And C...
CLICK HERE ->>->>->> https://urluss.com/2tEq7D
They come in an infinite variety of shapes, colors, flavors, textures and composition. As with other baked goods such as cookies and English biscuits, crackers have a low water activity and can be stored for long periods of time without losing their original quality.1
Crackers can be eaten on their own, but can also accompany other food items such as cheese or meat slices, fruits, dips, or soft spreads such as jam, butter, peanut butter, pâté, or mousse. Bland or mild crackers are sometimes used as a palate cleanser in food product testing or flavor testing, between samples. Crackers may also be crumbled and added to soup. The modern cracker is somewhat similar to nautical ship's biscuits, military hardtack, chacknels, and sacramental bread. Other early versions of the cracker can be found in ancient flatbreads, such as lavash, pita, matzo, flatbrød, and crispbread. Asian analogues include papadum and senbei.
In American English, the name "cracker" usually refers to savory or salty flat biscuits, whereas the term "cookie" is used for sweet items. Crackers are also generally made differently: crackers are made by layering dough, while cookies, besides the addition of sugar, usually use a chemical leavening agent, may contain eggs, and in other ways are made more like a cake. In British English, crackers are sometimes called water biscuits, or savory biscuits.
The decrease rate in 3-MCPD level was higher in samples stored in paper bags than for those stored in polyethylene bags. The packaging had a significant impact on 3-MCPD decrease in both blank and spiked crackers (1CD-1CP, 3CD-3CP, 5CD-5CP), but the latter only in blanks. In biscuits, these differences were significant in the spiked samples 1BD-1BP, 3BD-3BP, 5BD-5BP.
Taking all observations together, the main conclusion is the 3-MCPD instability after longer storage times. These findings confirm previous reports in the literature on 3-MCPD instability in food (Breitling-Utzmann et al. 2005). However, in our study we discovered that 3-MCPD degradation rate depended also on storage conditions and on the content of 3-MCPD in samples as well. In case of lower content of 3-MCPD in the samples (both blank samples of biscuits and crackers and spiked samples of biscuits), the 3-MCPD decay was faster, while for spiked crackers with higher 3-MCPD content, degradation has been proceeding more slowly. However, in spiked crackers and biscuits we added 3-MCPD artificially to the samples. The added 3-MCPD could be more stable in crackers, probably due to the presence of NaCl. In biscuits, the degradation of added compound was similar to the one occurred naturally in the samples.
Apart from the 3-MCPD amount and storage time, the 3-MCPD decrease in crackers was mainly effected by the paper packaging. As for biscuits, besides storage time and paper packaging, the sunlight exposure had also a great impact on the decrease of 3-MCPD levels, but only in longer storage times, including sunny days. The difference between the changes of 3-MCPD levels in crackers and biscuits during sunlight exposition was the only differentiating factor in these 2 sample groups. This effect could be based on the sample ingredients. Crackers and biscuits were composed of similar water and fat, but varied in salts and sugars. This suggests once again that the presence of NaCl is a crucial factor contributing to 3-MCPD stability with inhibiting its degradation during exposure to sunlight.
A composite flour technology is one of the potential food application methods in which different bakery products, such as cookies and bread, can be prepared . Bakery products prepared from cereal flour are widely used and liked in the world and these products are a good carrier to incorporate nutritional ingredients from other flours of oilseed crops and legumes. Use of fluted pumpkin flour in bread preparation has gained considerable importance in the past . Instead of bread, cookies are considered as better vehicle to supplement with other flours due to their ready to eat nature, prolonged shelf life, and consumption by all groups of people . Rheological behavior of dough is important during dough mixing and development in machine, which ultimately affects the quality of bakery products. During preparation of biscuits, dough is an intermediate, short time product between ingredients and final product. For development of a suitable bakery product with appropriate physical and sensory characters, proper dough development is crucial. Any inconsistency in dough will lead to failure in developing products with good quality parameters . Manley  reported that final quality of biscuits is dependent on dough consistency. 781b155fdc